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Bioenergy includes any kind of chemical energy accumulated through photosynthetic processes in organic plant matter (i.e., biomass). Example sources of bioenergy include dedicated energy crops (short rotation wood, perennial grasses), agricultural and forestry products and wastes, biogas resulting from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste and other farming waste, charcoal, and even municipal organic wastes. These bioenergy sources can be converted into useful energy products such as liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and bioelectricity (i.e., from the combustion of biomass).
Efficiently and sustainably produced bioenergy is a key source of renewable liquid transportation fuels. Biofuels can potentially compete with conventional energy in terms of price and can enhance air quality in large cities while helping to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In addition, bioenergy can contribute to energy security and bring new economic development to the agricultural sector in tropical countries, particularly those with available land and a willingness to diversify away from concentrated and environmentally problematic energy sources.